Published:  2018-11-01

The enemy in the mirror: self-perception-induced stress results in dissociation of psychological and physiological responses in patients with dissociative disorder

Authors:  Eva Schäflein, Heribert Sattel, Ulrike Schmidt, Martin Sack

Tags:  Autonomic nervous system, autopercepción, avoidance, cardiografía de impedancia, dissociative disorder, espejo-confrontación, evitación, face in the mirror, impedance cardiography, mirarse en el espejo, mirror-confrontation, parasympathetic, post-traumatic stress disorder, self-perception, sistema nervioso autónomo, sistema nervioso parasimpático, sistema nervioso simpático, sympathetic, trastorno de estrés postraumático, trastorno disociativo, 分离障碍, 创伤后应激障碍, 副交感神经, 同情心, 自主神经系统回避, 自我认知, 镜面对抗, 阻抗心动描记法, 面对镜子

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Background: Patients suffering from dissociative disorders (DD) are characterized by an avoidance of aversive stimuli. Clinical experience has shown that DD patients typically avoid the confrontation with their own faces in a mirror (CFM).Objective: To investigate potential CFM-associated self-reported and psychophysiological stress reactions of DD patients, which most likely inform on the still unknown pathophysiology of dysfunctional self-perception in DD.Method: Eighteen DD patients and 18 healthy controls (HCs) underwent CFM. They were assessed for CFM-induced subjective self-reported stress, acute dissociative symptoms and sympathetic and parasympathetic drive using impedance cardiography.Results: DD patients experienced more subjective stress and acute dissociation than HCs upon CFM. Their psychological stress response did not activate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.Conclusions: In DD patients, CFM constitutes serious self-reported stress and is associated with a blunted autonomic reactivity. Therapeutic approaches promoting self-perception and self-compassion, in particular by using CFM, might serve as goal-oriented diagnostic and therapeutic tools in DD.