Published:  2016-04-01

Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects

Authors:  H. J. Engelbregt, D. Keeser, L. van Eijk, E. M. Suiker, D. Eichhorn, S. Karch, J. B. Deijen, O. Pogarell

Tags:  Brain modulation, Electroencephalography, Long-term effects, Neurofeedback

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In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance.
25 healthy subjects were included and randomly assigned to active or sham E-NFT. On average the subjects underwent 15 E-NFT training sessions with a training duration of 45min. Resting-state EEG was recorded prior to E-NFT training (t1) and in a 3-year follow-up (t3).
Compared to sham E-NFT, which was used for the control group, real E-NFT increased beta activity in a predictable way. This increase was maintained over a period of three years post training. However, E-NFT did not result in significantly improved cognitive performance.
Based on our results, we conclude that EEG-NFT can selectively modify EEG beta activity both in short and long-term.
This is a sham controlled EEG neurofeedback study demonstrating long-term effects in resting state EEG.